It is thought that the church was built between 365-395 AD. In Cappadocia churches, which are frequently encountered in Anatolia, there is a similar cave church in Ma˛atl˝k area. Nothing is known about the millennium between the first constitution of the church and its conversion into a monastery. According to a legend told by the Greeks of the Black Sea, the two monks Barnabas and Sophronios of Athens had the same dream; In their dreams, they saw the place of the iconic icon of St. Panjia, one of Jesus' disciples, Saint Luke, and the place of Sumela, the place where Mary held the baby Jesus in her arms. On top of that, they came to Trabzon by sea without being aware of each other, they met the dreams they encountered and told each other and laid the foundation of the first church. However, the frescoes in the monastery often take place, given special importance to the Emperor of Trabzon III. Alexios (1349-1390) is thought to be the true founder of the monastery.
In the status of the monastery, which served as an outpost in the defense of the city exposed to the Turkmen raids in the 19th century, there was no change after the Ottoman conquest. Yavuz Sultan Selim gave birth to two great candlesticks here during his prince in Trabzon, Fatih Sultan Mehmed II. Murat, I. Selim, II. Selim, III. Murad, Ibrahim, IV. Mehmed, II. Solomon and III. Ahmed also has edicts related to the monastery. The privileges provided to the monastery in the Ottoman period, during the Islamization of Trabzon and Gumushane regions, especially in Macka and northern Gumushane, surrounded by Christian and secret Christian villages have created a space.